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NASA's InSPA Aims to Stimulate Commercial Manufacturing in Low Earth Orbit
File image showing an In Space Manufacturing satellite being prepared for launch by Rocket Lab.
NASA's InSPA Aims to Stimulate Commercial Manufacturing in Low Earth Orbit
by Brad Bartz
Los Angeles C (SPX) Nov 01, 2023

NASA has outlined a comprehensive strategy for its In Space Production Applications (InSPA), aimed at stimulating commercial manufacturing initiatives in low Earth orbit (LEO). This program employs a multi-phase award process designed to elevate the technological readiness of selected projects and boost their market viability.

NASA's annual calls for white papers under its Research Opportunities for International Space Station Utilization program mark the first step in identifying promising U.S.-based entities. Those selected to move on are then invited to submit full proposals for evaluation.

If chosen, the companies enter into a Firm Fixed Price contract with NASA, thereby gaining access to the International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory and its on-orbit resources, including data transmission, power, and U.S. Operating Segment crew time. The Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) supervises the approval process for these payloads.

Phased Approach for Maturation and Scalability
The InSPA program divides its initiatives into three specific phases aimed at maturing technology from initial proof-of-concept to full-fledged commercial production in LEO.

Phase 1: Early-Stage Validation
The first phase focuses on proof-of-concept and basic hardware development, seeking to hit a technological readiness level (TRL) of 6 and a manufacturing readiness level (MRL) of 3. The objectives here include hardware performance validation and preliminary business case development. NASA expects awardees to identify performance metrics and the number of required demonstration tests, while also capturing moderate levels of non-NASA investment for the next phase.

Phase 2: Advanced Development
The second phase aims for design maturation and advanced hardware, targeting a TRL of 8 and MRL of 7. This stage also requires some degree of cost-sharing from the selected companies and focuses on meeting customer-defined performance standards. Moreover, the business case must evolve to capture significant investor commitment for the following phase.

Phase 3: Commercial Operations
The final phase targets large-scale hardware production in LEO, aiming for TRL and MRL scores of 9. A significant degree of industry cost-sharing is also anticipated in this stage. The end goal is to close the business case, secure supply chain and regulatory approvals, and transition to commercial operations.

Applications Spanning Multiple Industries
InSPA's reach extends to several sectors, including advanced materials and biomanufacturing. The program supports the White House's "Cancer Moonshot" initiative by exploring new cancer therapeutics and the CHIPS and Science Act of 2022 by strengthening U.S. leadership in semiconductor production.

In the realm of advanced materials, microgravity allows for unique alloys and compositions, perfect crystals for drug development, and precisely layered medical devices. In the area of tissue engineering and biomanufacturing, microgravity enables three-dimensional tissue constructs and accelerates disease modeling and therapeutic development.

A Paradigm Shift in Low-Earth Orbit Commercialization
By institutionalizing this structured approach to developing and scaling in-space manufacturing, NASA is setting the stage for a vibrant LEO economy. The expectation is that the ISS National Laboratory will serve as a testing ground for production of advanced materials and bioproducts that will find terrestrial markets, thereby ushering in a new era of in-space commercial activities.

ai.spacedaily.com analysis

Relevance Scores out of 10:

1. Space Industry Analyst: 9/10
2. Stock and Finance Market Analyst: 8/10
3. Government Policy Analyst: 7/10

Comprehensive Analyst Summary:

Main Points:

The article details NASA's In Space Production Applications (InSPA) program, which aims to stimulate commercial manufacturing activities in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This program is designed to scale from proof-of-concept to full-scale commercial operations, employing a phased approach with an associated increase in technological and manufacturing readiness levels (TRL and MRL). The program spans multiple sectors, including advanced materials and biomanufacturing.

Implications for Respective Sectors:

- Space Industry: Significant implications for the commercial space sector, as this initiative aims to catalyze in-space manufacturing and technologies, increasing market viability for private entities.

- Finance Market: Financial analysts would find it intriguing that the program has planned phases that require escalating levels of private investment and cost-sharing, which could trigger venture capital interest and public market speculation.

- Government Policy: This program aligns with governmental initiatives like the White House's "Cancer Moonshot" and the CHIPS and Science Act of 2022, making it relevant for policy analysts interested in how federal strategy intersects with space-based initiatives.

Comparison with Past 25 Years in the Space Sector:

Over the past 25 years, the space industry has evolved from a government-dominated sector to one increasingly influenced by private enterprises (e.g., SpaceX, Blue Origin). This program reflects that shift by focusing on the market viability and commercial applications of space-based initiatives. Earlier programs like the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) also aimed to encourage private sector participation, but InSPA seems more comprehensive in scope and commercial applicability.

Correlations, Discrepancies, or Notable Similarities:

InSPA's multi-phase approach resembles the tiered funding mechanisms seen in previous programs like COTS and NASA's Artemis program. However, the program is more expansive in its industrial applications, reaching beyond traditional aerospace industries.

Investigative Questions:

1. What is the estimated budget for each phase of the InSPA program?

2. How does NASA plan to evaluate the ROI of commercial entities participating in InSPA?

3. What are the short-term and long-term economic impacts anticipated from InSPA on the U.S. economy?

4. How will the program intersect with international entities, given that it uses the International Space Station National Laboratory?

5. What are the key performance metrics that NASA expects awardees to meet during each phase of the program?

By understanding the answers to these questions, analysts can better gauge the program's prospective impact across multiple sectors.

Related Links
Research Opportunities for International Space Station Utilization
Space Technology News - Applications and Research

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