. 24/7 Space News .
First transiting exoplanet's 'chemical fingerprint' reveals its distant birthplace
by Staff Writers
Warwick UK (SPX) Apr 08, 2021

Exoplanet HD 209458b transits its star. The illuminated crescent and its colours have been exaggerated to illustrate the light spectra that the astronomers used to identify the six molecules in its atmosphere.

Astronomers have found evidence that the first exoplanet that was identified transiting its star could have migrated to a close orbit with its star from its original birthplace further away. Analysis of the planet's atmosphere by a team including University of Warwick scientists has identified the chemical fingerprint of a planet that formed much further away from its sun than it currently resides. It confirms previous thinking that the planet has moved to its current position after forming, a mere 7 million km from its sun or the equivalent of 1/20th the distance from the Earth to our Sun.

The conclusions are published in the journal Nature by an international team of astronomers. The University of Warwick led the modelling and interpretation of the results which mark the first time that as many as six molecules in the atmosphere of an exoplanet have been measured to determine its composition.

It is also the first time that astronomers have used these six molecules to definitively pinpoint the location at which these hot, giant planets form thanks to the composition of their atmospheres.

With new, more powerful telescopes coming online soon, their technique could also be used to study the chemistry of exoplanets that could potentially host life.

This latest research used the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma, Spain, to acquire high-resolution spectra of the atmosphere of the exoplanet HD 209458b as it passed in front of its host star on four separate occasions. The light from the star is altered as it passes through the planet's atmosphere and by analysing the differences in the resulting spectrum astronomers can determine what chemicals are present and their abundances.

For the first time, astronomers were able to detect hydrogen cyanide, methane, ammonia, acetylene, carbon monoxide and low amounts of water vapour in the atmosphere of HD 209458b. The unexpected abundance of carbon-based molecules (hydrogen cyanide, methane, acetylene and carbon monoxide) suggests that there are approximately as many carbon atoms as oxygen atoms in the atmosphere, double the carbon expected. This suggests that the planet has preferentially accreted gas rich in carbon during formation, which is only possible if it orbited much further out from its star when it originally formed, most likely at a similar distance to Jupiter or Saturn in our own solar system.

Dr Siddharth Gandhi of the University of Warwick Department of Physics said: "The key chemicals are carbon-bearing and nitrogen-bearing species. If these species are at the level we've detected them, this is indicative of an atmosphere that is enriched in carbon compared to oxygen. We've used these six chemical species for the first time to narrow down where in its protoplanetary disc it would have originally formed.

"There is no way that a planet would form with an atmosphere so rich in carbon if it is within the condensation line of water vapour. At the very hot temperature of this planet (1,500K), if the atmosphere contains all the elements in the same proportion as in the parent star, oxygen should be twice more abundant than carbon and mostly bonded with hydrogen to form water or to carbon to form carbon monoxide. Our very different finding agrees with the current understanding that hot Jupiters like HD 209458b formed far away from their current location."

Using models of planetary formation, the astronomers compared HD 209458b's chemical fingerprint with what they would expect to see for a planet of that type.

A solar system begins life as a disc of material surrounding the star which gathers together to form the solid cores of planets, which then accrete gaseous material to form an atmosphere. Close to the star where it is hotter, a large proportion of oxygen remains in the atmosphere in water vapour. Further out, as it gets cooler, that water condenses to become ice and is locked into a planet's core, leaving an atmosphere more heavily comprised of carbon- and nitrogen-based molecules. Therefore, planets orbiting close to the sun are expected to have atmospheres rich in oxygen, rather than carbon.

HD 209458b was the first exoplanet to be identified using the transit method, by observing it as it passed in front of its star. It has been the subject of many studies, but this is the first time that six individual molecules have been measured in its atmosphere to create a detailed 'chemical fingerprint'.

Dr Matteo Brogi from the University of Warwick team adds: "By scaling up these observations, we'll be able to tell what classes of planet we have out there in terms of their formation location and early evolution. It's really important that we don't work under the assumptions that there is only a couple of molecular species that are important to determine the spectra of these planets, as has frequently been done before. Detecting as many molecules as possible is useful when we move on to testing this technique on planets with conditions that are amenable for hosting life, because we will need to have a full portfolio of chemical species we can detect."

Paolo Giacobbe, researcher at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) and lead author of the paper, said: "If this discovery were a novel it would begin with 'In the beginning there was only water...' because the vast majority of the inference on exoplanet atmospheres from near-infrared observations was based on the presence (or absence) of water vapour, which dominates this region of the spectrum. We asked ourselves: is it really possible that all the other species expected from theory do not leave any measurable trace? Discovering that it is possible to detect them, thanks to our efforts in improving analysis techniques, opens new horizons to be explored."

Research Report: 'Five carbon- and nitrogen-bearing species in a hot giant planet atmosphere'

Related Links
University Of Warwick
Lands Beyond Beyond - extra solar planets - news and science
Life Beyond Earth

Thanks for being there;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5+ Billed Monthly

paypal only
SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once

credit card or paypal

Raindrops also keep fallin' on exoplanets
Boston MA (SPX) Apr 06, 2021
One day, humankind may step foot on another habitable planet. That planet may look very different from Earth, but one thing will feel familiar - the rain. In a recent paper, Harvard researchers found that raindrops are remarkably similar across different planetary environments, even planets as drastically different as Earth and Jupiter. Understanding the behavior of raindrops on other planets is key to not only revealing the ancient climate on planets like Mars but identifying potentially habitabl ... read more

Comment using your Disqus, Facebook, Google or Twitter login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Biden proposes 6.3% boost for NASA in budget proposal

Liftoff! Pioneers of space

All aboard! Next stop space...

40th anniversary of first space shuttle orbital mission a bittersweet occasion

NASA certifies new launch control system for Artemis I

DLR is creating the rocket fuels of the future

Ariane 6 pre-flight 'plumbing' tests

Roscosmos has lost several contracts for satellite launches due to 'mean' US sanctions

Perseverance's take selfie with Ingenuity

CO2 mitigation on Earth and magnesium civilization on Mars

Mars didn't dry up in one go

NASA delays Mars copter flight for tech check

Chinese rocket for space station mission arrives at launch site

Ningbo to build $3.05b rocket launchpad site

China advances space cooperation in 2020: blue book

China selects astronauts for space station program

SpaceX launches 60 Starlink communications satellites

UK space firm In-Space Missions Limited Announces Major Expansion And Job Creation Plans

SpaceFund Venture Capital Announces First Close of Second Fund

Nine global space startups to join Australia's first space dedicated incubator program

Northrop Grumman and Intelsat make history with docking of 2nd Mission Extension Vehicle

New laser to help clear the sky of space debris

US restricts trade with Chinese supercomputers centers

German Space Agency Selects Lockheed Martin iSpace System For Space Situational Awareness

Long-awaited review reveals journey of water from interstellar clouds to habitable worlds

SKF bearings help Mars Rover collect rock and regolith samples on the planet's surface

First transiting exoplanet's 'chemical fingerprint' reveals its distant birthplace

Scientists shed more light on molecules linked to life on other planets

New research reveals secret to Jupiter's curious aurora activity

NASA's Europa Clipper builds hardware, moves toward assembly

First X-rays from Uranus Discovered

SwRI scientists discover a new auroral feature on Jupiter

The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2024 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Statement Our advertisers use various cookies and the like to deliver the best ad banner available at one time. All network advertising suppliers have GDPR policies (Legitimate Interest) that conform with EU regulations for data collection. By using our websites you consent to cookie based advertising. If you do not agree with this then you must stop using the websites from May 25, 2018. Privacy Statement. Additional information can be found here at About Us.