24/7 Space News
EXO WORLDS
NASA Puts Next-Gen Exoplanet-Imaging Technology to the Test
JPL scientist Vanessa Bailey stands behind the Nancy Grace Roman Coronagraph, which has been undergoing testing at JPL. About the size of a baby grand piano, the Coronagraph is designed to block starlight and allow scientists to see the faint light from planets outside our solar system.
ADVERTISEMENT
     
NASA Puts Next-Gen Exoplanet-Imaging Technology to the Test
by Staff Writers for Goddard News
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Feb 01, 2024

The Coronagraph Instrument on NASA's Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will demonstrate new technologies that could vastly increase the number of planets outside our solar system (exoplanets) that scientists can directly observe. Designed and built at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, it recently passed a series of critical tests ahead of launch. That includes tests to ensure the instrument's electrical components don't interfere with those on the rest of the observatory and vice versa.

"This is such an important and nerve-wracking stage of building a spacecraft instrument, testing whether or not everything works as intended," said Feng Zhao, deputy project manager for the Roman Coronagraph at JPL. "But we have an amazing team who built this thing, and it passed the electrical components tests with flying colors."

A coronagraph blocks light from a bright cosmic object, like a star, so that scientists can observe a nearby object that would otherwise be hidden by the glare. (Think of a car's sun visor.) The light reflected or emitted by a planet carries information about the chemicals in the planet's atmosphere and other potential signs of habitability, so coronagraphs will likely be a critical tool in the search for life beyond our solar system.

But if scientists were trying to obtain images of an Earth-like planet in another solar system (same size, same distance from a star similar to our Sun), they wouldn't be able to see the planet in the star's glare, even with the best coronagraphs and most powerful telescopes operating today.

The Roman Coronagraph aims to change that paradigm. The innovations that have gone into the instrument should make it possible to see planets similar to Jupiter in size and distance from their star. The Coronagraph team expects these advances will help enable the leap to viewing more Earth-like planets with future observatories.

As a technology demonstration, the Roman Coronagraph's primary goal is to test technologies that have not been flown in space before. Specifically, it will test sophisticated light-blocking capabilities that are at least 10 times better than what's currently available. Scientists expect to push its performance even further to observe challenging targets that could yield novel scientific discoveries.

Making the Grade
Even with the Coronagraph blocking a star's light, a planet will still be exceptionally faint, and it might take a full month of observations to get a good picture of the distant world. To make these observations, the instrument's camera detects individual photons, or single particles of light, making it far more sensitive than previous coronagraphs.

That's one reason the recent tests were crucial: The electrical currents that send power to the spacecraft's components can produce faint electrical signals, mimicking light in the Coronagraph's sensitive cameras - an effect known as electromagnetic interference. Meanwhile, signals from the Coronagraph could similarly disrupt Roman's other instruments.

The mission needs to ensure neither will happen when the telescope is operating in an isolated, electromagnetically quiet environment 1 million miles (about 1.5 million kilometers) from Earth. So a team of engineers put the fully assembled instrument in a special isolated, electromagnetically quiet chamber at JPL and turned it on to full power.

They measured the instrument's electromagnetic output to make sure it fell below the level required to operate aboard Roman. The team used injection clamps, transformers, and antennas to produce electrical disturbances and radio waves similar to what the rest of the telescope will generate. Then they measured the instrument's performance, looking for excessive noise in the camera images and other unwanted responses from the optical mechanisms.

"The electric fields we generate with the antennas are about the same strength as what's generated by a computer screen," said Clement Gaidon, the Roman Coronagraph electrical systems engineer at JPL. "That's a pretty benign level, all things considered, but we have very sensitive hardware onboard. Overall, the instrument did a fantastic job navigating across the electromagnetic waves. And props to the team for wrapping this test campaign in record time!"

A Wide Field of View
The lessons learned from the Coronagraph technology demonstration will be separate from the Roman Space Telescope's primary mission, which includes multiple science objectives. The mission's principal tool, the Wide Field Instrument, is designed to generate some of the largest images of the universe ever taken from space. These images will enable Roman to conduct groundbreaking surveys of cosmic objects such as stars, planets, and galaxies, and study the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe.

For example, by taking repeated images of the center of the Milky Way - like a multiyear time-lapse movie - the Wide Field Instrument will discover tens of thousands of new exoplanets. (This planet survey will be separate from the observations made by the Coronagraph).

Roman will also make 3D maps of the cosmos to explore how galaxies have formed and why the universe's expansion is speeding up, measuring the effects of what astronomers call "dark matter" and "dark energy." With these wide-ranging capabilities, Roman will help answer questions about big and small features of our universe.

Related Links
Roman Telescope for GSFC News
Lands Beyond Beyond - extra solar planets - news and science
Life Beyond Earth

Subscribe Free To Our Daily Newsletters

RELATED CONTENT
The following news reports may link to other Space Media Network websites.
EXO WORLDS
UC Irvine-led team unravels mysteries of planet formation and evolution in distant solar system
Irvine CA (SPX) Jan 29, 2024
A recently discovered solar system with six confirmed exoplanets and a possible seventh is boosting astronomers' knowledge of planet formation and evolution. Relying on a globe-spanning arsenal of observatories and instruments, a team led by researchers at the University of California, Irvine has compiled the most precise measurements yet of the exoplanets' masses, orbital properties and atmospheric characteristics. In a paper published in The Astronomical Journal, the researchers share the result ... read more

ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
EXO WORLDS
Cygnus spacecraft arrives at space station with 8,200 pounds of cargo

Space Perspective secures investment for carbon-neutral space tourism

China warns US tech curbs will 'come back to bite them'

Virgin Galactic Marks 11th Spaceflight with Full Passenger Manifest

EXO WORLDS
Britain's space capabilities boosted by Pulsar Fusion's latest engine test

Shake, rattle and launch: Dream Chaser spaceplane passes vibration test

Xichang Space Launch Site Celebrates 200th Mission with Geely-02 Satellite Deployment

China's Smart Dragon 3 launches satellites from South China Sea

EXO WORLDS
A Drive With a View: Sols 4084-4085

Sols 4086-4088: Groundhog Day in Gale

Lake deposits in Idaho give scientists insight into ancient traces of life on Mars

Bright Rocks on the Horizon: An Exciting Glimpse of Uncharted Territory

EXO WORLDS
BIT advances microbiological research on Chinese Space Station

Shenzhou 18 and 19 crews undertake intensive training for next missions

Tianzhou 6 burns up safely reentering Earth

Yan Hongsen's future dreams as 'Rocket Boy'

EXO WORLDS
Intelsat Launches Inflight Internet Above the Arctic

Terran Orbital announces agreement with Shareholder Group

Geespace achieves milestone in satellite constellation development for future mobility

SmartSat and New Zealand Space Agency Forge Partnership for Space Sector Innovation

EXO WORLDS
Spaceborne Computer-2 sets new benchmark for AI and ML on ISS

Rising Collision Risks in Sun-Synchronous Orbits Amid Satellite Surge

BlackStar Orbital to open new spacecraft manufacturing facility in Sierra Vista by 2026

Heritage ERS-2 satellite to reenter Earth's atmosphere

EXO WORLDS
NASA Puts Next-Gen Exoplanet-Imaging Technology to the Test

What Kind of World is LHS 1140b

Ice and fire: Antarctic volcano may hold clues to life on Mars

Researchers spying for signs of life among exoplanet atmospheres

EXO WORLDS
Europa Clipper gears up with full instrument suite onboard

New images reveal what Neptune and Uranus really look like

Researchers reveal true colors of Neptune, Uranus

The PI's Perspective: The Long Game

Subscribe Free To Our Daily Newsletters


ADVERTISEMENT



The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2023 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Statement Our advertisers use various cookies and the like to deliver the best ad banner available at one time. All network advertising suppliers have GDPR policies (Legitimate Interest) that conform with EU regulations for data collection. By using our websites you consent to cookie based advertising. If you do not agree with this then you must stop using the websites from May 25, 2018. Privacy Statement. Additional information can be found here at About Us.