24/7 Space News
Do Earth-like exoplanets have magnetic fields
illustration only
Do Earth-like exoplanets have magnetic fields
by Staff Writers
Washington DC (SPX) Apr 04, 2023

Earth's magnetic field does more than keep everyone's compass needles pointed in the same direction. It also helps preserve Earth's sliver of life-sustaining atmosphere by deflecting high energy particles and plasma regularly blasted out of the sun. Researchers have now identified a prospective Earth-sized planet in another solar system as a prime candidate for also having a magnetic field - YZ Ceti b, a rocky planet orbiting a star about 12 light-years away from Earth.

Researchers Sebastian Pineda and Jackie Villadsen observed a repeating radio signal emanating from the star YZ Ceti using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, a radio telescope operated by the U.S. National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Research by Pineda and Villadsen to understand the magnetic field interactions between distant stars and their orbiting planets is supported by NSF. Their research was published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

"The search for potentially habitable or life-bearing worlds in other solar systems depends in part on being able to determine if rocky, Earth-like exoplanets actually have magnetic fields," says NSF's Joe Pesce, program director for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "This research shows not only that this particular rocky exoplanet likely has a magnetic field but provides a promising method to find more."

A planet's magnetic field can prevent that planet's atmosphere from being worn away over time by particles spewed from its star, explains Pineda, an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado. "Whether a planet survives with an atmosphere or not can depend on whether the planet has a strong magnetic field or not."

A radio signal from another star
"I'm seeing this thing that no one has seen happen before," recalls Villadsen, an astronomer at Bucknell University, of the moment she first isolated the radio signal while pouring over data at her home on a weekend.

"We saw the initial burst and it looked beautiful," says Pineda. "When we saw it again, it was very indicative that, OK, maybe we really have something here."

The researchers theorize that the stellar radio waves they detected are generated by the interactions between the magnetic field of the exoplanet and the star it orbits. However, for such radio waves to be detectable over long distances, they must be very strong. While magnetic fields have previously been detected on massive Jupiter-size exoplanets, doing so for a comparatively tiny Earth-sized exoplanet requires a different technique.

Because magnetic fields are invisible, it's challenging to determine if a distant planet actually has one, explains Villadsen. "What we're doing is looking for a way to see them," she says. "We're looking for planets that are really close to their stars and are a similar size to Earth. These planets are way too close to their stars to be somewhere you could live, but because they are so close the planet is kind of plowing through a bunch of stuff coming off the star.

"If the planet has a magnetic field and it plows through enough star stuff, it will cause the star to emit bright radio waves."

The small red dwarf star YZ Ceti and its known exoplanet, YZ Ceti b, provided an ideal pair because the exoplanet is so close to the star that it completes a full orbit in only two days. (By comparison, the shortest planetary orbit in our solar system is Mercury's at 88 days.) As plasma from YZ Ceti careens off the planet's magnetic "plow," it then interacts with the magnetic field of the star itself, which generates radio waves strong enough to be observed on Earth.

The strength of those radio waves can then be measured, allowing researchers to determine how strong the magnetic field of the planet might be.

Northern lights on another world?
"This is telling us new information about the environment around stars," says Pineda. "This idea is what we're calling 'extrasolar space weather.'"

The sun's high energy particles and sometimes huge bursts of plasma create solar weather closer to home, around Earth. Those ejections from the sun can disrupt global telecommunications and short-circuit electronics in satellites and even on Earth's surface. The interaction between solar weather and Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere also creates the phenomenon of the aurora borealis, or northern lights.

The interactions between YZ Ceti b and its star also produce an aurora, but with a significant difference: The aurora is on the star itself.

"We're actually seeing the aurora on the star - that's what this radio emission is," explains Pineda. "There should also be aurora on the planet if it has its own atmosphere."

Both researchers agree that while YZ Ceti b is the best candidate yet for a rocky exoplanet with a magnetic field, it's not a closed case. "This could really plausibly be it," says Villadsen. "But I think it's going to be a lot of follow-up work before a really strong confirmation of radio waves caused by a planet comes out."

"There are a lot of new radio facilities coming online and planned for the future," says Pineda of the possibilities for future research. "Once we show that this is really happening, we'll be able to do it more systematically. We're at the beginning of it."

Research Report:Coherent radio bursts from known M-dwarf planet-host YZ Ceti

Related Links
National Science Foundation
Lands Beyond Beyond - extra solar planets - news and science
Life Beyond Earth

Subscribe Free To Our Daily Newsletters

The following news reports may link to other Space Media Network websites.
New paper investigates exoplanet climates
Melbourne FL (SPX) Mar 31, 2023
Inspired by the Milankovitch cycles that play a role in Earth's climate over time, new research at Florida Tech examines how these recurring orbital movements may affect the climate of exoplanets. "Sporadic Spin-Orbit Variations in Compact Multi-planet Systems and their Influence on Exoplanet Climate," a study by Florida Tech exoplanetary scientist and astrobiologist Howard Chen and researchers at Georgia Tech, University of Toronto and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, features new research that ... read more

NASA awards innovative concept studies for science, exploration

Axiom Space's upcoming ISS mission part of increasing commercialization of space

Makenzie Lystrup named first female director of Goddard Space Flight Center

Soyuz spacecraft that will bring ISS crew back to Earth moved to new port

SpaceX prepares for rehearsal, test flight of Starship rocket

NASA's TEMPO spacecraft hitched a ride with Intelsat's 40e satellite on a SpaceX rocket

Privately built, liquid-fuel rocket first in world to reach orbit in debut flight

Momentus' pioneering propulsion system completes initial tests in space

Scoping out the next sampling stop for Perseverance

New interactive mosaic uses NASA imagery to show Mars in vivid detail

Ready for Software Upgrade Sols 3786-3788

MOXIE Celebrates 2 Years on Mars: Discoveries and Work Left To Do

China's inland space launch site advances commercial services

China's Shenzhou XV astronauts complete 3rd spacewalk

China's Shenzhou-15 astronauts to return in June

China's space technology institute sees launches of 400 spacecraft

Safran to provide GNSS simulation solutions for Xona's LEO constellation

Deloitte announces formal space practice for rapidly growing space industry

Unseenlabs ready for Bro-9 satellite launch dedicated vessel geolocation from space

Kenya to launch first operational satellite next week

Satixfy tests new antenna with OneWeb and Air Force Research Lab

Integral safe at last

LeoLabs and ClearSpace partner to advance a safer, more sustainable space environment

D-Orbit signs contract with ESA for IRIDE Satellite Observation Program

Do Earth-like exoplanets have magnetic fields

New paper investigates exoplanet climates

JWST confirms giant planet atmospheres vary widely

Planet hunting and the origins of life

NASA's Webb Scores Another Ringed World with New Image of Uranus

Juice testing - down to the wire

An unprecedented journey to Jupiter

Sabotaging Juice

Subscribe Free To Our Daily Newsletters


The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2023 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Statement Our advertisers use various cookies and the like to deliver the best ad banner available at one time. All network advertising suppliers have GDPR policies (Legitimate Interest) that conform with EU regulations for data collection. By using our websites you consent to cookie based advertising. If you do not agree with this then you must stop using the websites from May 25, 2018. Privacy Statement. Additional information can be found here at About Us.