Subscribe free to our newsletters via your
. 24/7 Space News .




Subscribe free to our newsletters via your




















ENERGY TECH
How the electrodes of lithium-air batteries become passivated
by Staff Writers
Moscow, Russia (SPX) Aug 07, 2017


This is an electrochemical cell for the studies of mechanisms of processes, taking place in lithium-air batteries. Credit Alexei Khokhlov

Lithium-air batteries are devices, producing power just out of air so they are also called lithium-oxygen batteries. Due to higher energy density they are much lighter than lithium-ion ones. Lithium-air batteries could prove to be much-needed, for instance, for increasing driving range of electric cars on a single charge.

However, despite all these advantages, industrial production of lithium-air batteries hasn't started yet since their designers face fundamental problems which can't be overcome for the present.

Artem Sergeev, a Ph.D. student from the Department of Polymer and Crystal Physics at the Solid-state Physics Division of the Faculty of Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, and one the co-authors shares: "A lithium-air battery could potentially have specific energy, which is 3-5 times more than modern lithium-ion batteries. One of the main problems in such batteries' development is electrode passivation, which is transition of the electrode material surface into inactive state.

"We've obtained new data, concerning the reaction mechanism, and suggested some ideas on how to inhibit electrode passivation. One could use the technique, offered by us, for searching for more appropriate solvents, electrolytes and electrode materials."

Pure oxygen but not air, being a mixture of atmospheric gases, is necessary today for operation of lithium-air batteries. Carbon dioxide and moisture, contained in air, slow down redox reactions, underlying the battery operation.

By various estimates, overcoming these obstacles will take from 5 to10 years. The scientists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University study the processes, preventing robust operation of lithium-air batteries.

Alexei Khokhlov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician of RAS, the Head of the Department of Polymer and Crystal Physics at the Faculty of Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and one of the article authors comments: "Generally, in the case of elaboration success the battery should be lithium-air, implying usage of environmental air. Special membranes should separate its undesirable components (moisture, carbon dioxide). But currently there are also more fundamental problems and in order to solve them one usually applies to lithium-oxygen cells, where pure oxygen from gas bottles is delivered."

The cathode (a positive electrode) in a lithium-air battery is represented by a porous carbon sponge, containing in its voids the electrolyte solution with lithium ions. The cathode contacts with the outside gas environment, what is necessary to provide oxygen delivery to the electrolyte, which is a liquid ion conductor.

The scientists have simulated the interface between the electrode and electrolyte solution at the cathode of a lithium-air battery and offered an approach for inhibiting electrode passivation. The researchers have used the supercomputer complex of the Lomonosov Moscow State University for all-atom simulation with the help of molecular dynamics methods.

Alexei Khokhlov explains: "There is quite a number of parallel processes and reactions, occurring at the cathode while lithium-air battery operates. Unfortunately, experimental study of separate stages of these processes often turns out to be impossible, while simulation of separate stages of the reactions with the help of supercomputers allows to trace basic trend in the stages of interest."

The scientists have found out that reduction of superoxide anion (a strong inorganic oxidizer - O2-), leading to electrode passivation, is possible only after its binding with lithium cation.

Alexei Khokhlov sums up: "We've understood that formation of non-conductive discharge products right on the electrode surface (its passivation) takes place only after binding of an intermediate (superoxide anion) with lithium ions, which concentration is high near the electrode surface. If you displace them out, passivation won't, probably, proceed so rapidly."

The project has been done in cooperation with scientists from Ulm University, Germany.

Research paper

ENERGY TECH
Scientists map ways forward for lithium-ion batteries for extreme environments
Houston TX (SPX) Jul 31, 2017
Lithium-ion batteries are popular power sources for cellphones and other electronics, but problematic in extreme heat or cold. A Rice University laboratory has suggested ways to extend their range. Rice materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan and members of his lab have published a review that analyzes recent progress in lithium-ion technology and suggests how to make the batteries more adapta ... read more

Related Links
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Powering The World in the 21st Century at Energy-Daily.com

Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

Comment using your Disqus, Facebook, Google or Twitter login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

ENERGY TECH
NASA Offers Space Station as Catalyst for Discovery in Washington

Let's cut them off from access to Space

ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli starts third mission on Space Station

NextSTEP Partners Develop Ground Prototypes to Expand our Knowledge of Deep Space Habitats

ENERGY TECH
ISRO Develops Ship-Based Antenna System to Track Satellite Launches

India looks to more launches with new facility from 2018

Sea Launch to be modernized for Russia's Soyuz-5 carrier rocket

Navy completes testing fixes on electro-magnetic launch systems

ENERGY TECH
For Moratorium on Sending Commands to Mars, Blame the Sun

Tributes to wetter times on Mars

Opportunity will spend three weeks at current location due to Solar Conjunction

Curiosity Mars Rover Begins Study of Ridge Destination

ENERGY TECH
China develops sea launches to boost space commerce

Chinese satellite Zhongxing-9A enters preset orbit

Chinese Space Program: From Setback, to Manned Flights, to the Moon

Chinese Rocket Fizzles Out, Puts Other Launches on Hold

ENERGY TECH
ASTROSCALE Raises a Total of $25 Million in Series C Led by Private Companies

LISA Pathfinder: bake, rattle and roll

Airbus DS to expand cooperation with Russia

UK space companies to develop international partnerships

ENERGY TECH
Algorithms that can sketch, recreate 3-D shapes

WSU physicists turn a crystal into an electrical circuit

Researchers set new record for tape storage

Scientists improve ability to measure rock stress

ENERGY TECH
A New Search for Extrasolar Planets from the Arecibo Observatory

Gulf of Mexico tube worm is one of the longest-living animals in the world

Molecular Outflow Launched Beyond Disk Around Young Star

Breakthrough Starshot launches tiny spacecraft in quest for Alpha Centauri

ENERGY TECH
New Horizons Video Soars over Pluto's Majestic Mountains and Icy Plains

Juno spots Jupiter's Great Red Spot

New evidence in support of the Planet Nine hypothesis

NASA's New Horizons Team Strikes Gold in Argentina




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement