By Ali Noorani and Eric Randolph
Tehran (AFP) Oct 14, 2017
Iranians responded with anger and mockery on Saturday to the bellicose speech against their country by US President Donald Trump and his threats to tear up the landmark nuclear deal.
"I was so angry last night," said Layla, 42, who runs an artisan shop in Tehran.
"This person hates Iran so much that even if we don't support the ideas of the regime, we find ourselves supporting them and the Revolutionary Guards."
Like millions of other Iranians, she spent Friday night watching Trump reel off a list of grievances committed by the "Iranian dictatorship, its sponsorship of terrorism, and its continuing aggression in the Middle East and all around the world".
He threatened to "terminate" the 2015 nuclear deal signed between Iran and six world powers unless Congress passed stringent new sanctions.
But for many, Trump's biggest insult was the use of the term "Arabian Gulf" rather than "Persian Gulf" -- a big no-no in a country with a fierce nationalistic streak.
"Everyone knew Trump's friendship was for sale to the highest bidder. We now know that his geography is too," wrote Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif on Twitter, referring to the US alliance with Iran's regional rival Saudi Arabia.
Most countries and international bodies still use "Persian Gulf" as the conventional name for the region's waterway, despite pressure to change it from the Arab Gulf monarchies.
- 'In Iran's favour' -
"Trump's statements are so ridiculous that it actually works in Iran's favour. Speaking about the 'Arabian Gulf' is taken very badly by people here," said Abbas, a 40-year-old banker on his way to work.
"The reaction of the Europeans shows that the United States is isolated, and only Saudi Arabia and Israel have supported Trump," he added.
The other signatories to the nuclear deal -- Britain, France, Germany, China and Russia -- have called for its preservation, saying that Iran is clearly sticking to its commitments.
In an interview with the US television channel CBS News, Zarif said Trump's assault on the nuclear deal sealed under his predecessor Barack Obama had served to undermine US credibility on the international front.
"Nobody else will trust any US administration to engage in any long-term negotiation because the length of any commitment, the duration of any commitment from now on with any US administration would be the remainder of the term of that president," Zarif said.
Trump's efforts to reach out to ordinary Iranians, who he referred to as the "longest-suffering victims" of the Islamic regime, also appeared to have fallen on deaf ears, with many recalling the travel ban he slapped on them earlier this year.
His Instagram page was inundated by more than a million comments, mostly from jeering Iranians.
"Trump stopped Iranians going to the US. How can he say he's on our side?" said Layla.
For all the bluster, Trump's strategy was not as tough as many had predicted.
It placed new sanctions on Iran's Revolutionary Guards, but did not designate them a foreign terrorist organisation as trailed in the run-up to the speech.
- 'We will stand together' -
The hardline Kayhan newspaper spun this as a victory, saying Trump had not "dared" to do so after the Guards warned the US would have to move its regional bases out of reach of Iranian missiles.
President Hassan Rouhani had pushed back against the Revolutionary Guards' deep involvement in the economy after winning re-election earlier this year.
But Trump's threats have brought a new solidarity among Iran's often bitterly divided institutions.
"We have dissatisfactions, for example there are economic problems," said Bahram Siavoshi, 36, as he walked to work at a private finance firm in Tehran.
"But if it comes to it, we will stand together to the end, and will defend even the Guards. Their efforts cannot be ignored. If it wasn't for them we would be like Syria or Yemen."
Rouhani took to the airwaves shortly after Trump's speech on Friday night, dismissing it as "nothing but the repetition of baseless accusations and swear words".
"He has not studied international law. Can a president annul a multilateral international treaty on his own?" Rouhani said.
Nonetheless, the deal's future hangs in the balance as the US Congress has 60 days to decide how to tighten sanctions, or possibly introduce new red lines that would trigger a US response.
"If the Congress goes ahead with new sanctions, then the deal is dead and Iran will restart its nuclear programme and move forward full-steam ahead in all fields," Mohammad Marandi, a professor at the University of Tehran, told AFP.
"Iran will probably invest even more than before in order to show the Americans that they can't get away with destroying the agreement."
The 2015 Iran nuclear deal
Struck in Vienna by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council -- Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States -- plus Germany, the deal established controls to prevent Tehran from developing an atom bomb.
It was a breakthrough that ended a 12-year standoff with the West over Iran's disputed nuclear programme, and led to a partial lifting of international sanctions on Tehran.
Here is some background about the deal:
- 21 months of talks -
Talks on Iran's nuclear programme start in 2013 after newly elected Iranian President Hassan Rouhani gives the go-head, with the agreement of the country's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
By November, an interim deal is agreed, freezing some of Iran's nuclear activities in exchange for minor sanctions relief.
It is finalised in April 2015 and signed in Vienna on July 14 that year, ending 12 years of crisis and 21 months of negotiations.
The deal is adopted by the UN Security Council on July 20, 2015 and comes into force on January 16, 2016.
- Main points -
The accord brings to a minimum of one year, for at least 10 years, the "breakout time" that Iran needs to produce enough fissile material to make an atom bomb.
Tehran agrees to slash the number of uranium centrifuges, which can enrich uranium for nuclear fuel as well as for nuclear weapons, from more than 19,000 to 5,060, maintaining this level for 10 years.
All enrichment is to take place at the Natanz facility only and Iran's pre-deal stockpile of 12 tonnes of low-enriched uranium -- enough for several nuclear weapons if further enriched -- is to be reduced to 300 kilogrammes (660 pounds) for 15 years.
Only enrichment to low purities is allowed, also for 15 years.
Iran's Arak reactor is to be redesigned so that it does not produce weapons-grade plutonium, the alternative to highly enriched uranium for a nuclear weapon.
- Controls -
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is charged with regular inspections of facilities such as uranium mines and centrifuge workshops for up to 25 years.
The agency says in September that Tehran is sticking to the terms of the deal. Its staff had conducted at least 400 inspections of sites in Iran and 25 snap inspections, it says.
- Sanctions eased -
The deal paves the way for a partial lifting of international sanctions on Iran, opening the door for foreign investors, with French energy giant Total and carmakers PSA and Renault quick to strike deals.
UN embargoes on conventional arms and on ballistic missiles have been maintained up to 2020 and 2023 respectively.
- 'The worst deal'? -
Trump has railed against the deal struck by his predecessor and vowed to tear it up, deriding it as one agreed to out of "weakness".
At a much-anticipated White House speech on Friday, the US president said he was refusing to certify the deal and warned Washington may yet walk away from "one of the worst" agreements in history, leaving its fate in the hands of Congress.
The nuclear deal, Trump said, had failed to address Iranian subversion in its region and its illegal missile program.
Rome (AFP) Oct 9, 2017
The UN atomic agency chief on Monday affirmed Iran's commitment to a 2015 nuclear deal, in a statement that came as US President Donald Trump said Tehran was not living up to the "spirit" of the agreement. "I can state that the nuclear-related commitments undertaken by Iran under the (nuclear agreement) are being implemented," International Atomic Energy Agency chief Yukiya Amano said in pre ... read more
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