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STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Evidence for Supernovas Near Earth
by Staff Writers
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Aug 29, 2014


A new ScienceCast video examines evidence that our solar system is inside a bubble of hot gas created by supernova explosions.

Astronomers call it "the Local Bubble." It is peanut-shaped, about 300 light years long, and filled with almost nothing. Gas inside the bubble is very thin (0.001 atoms per cubic centimeter) and very hot (roughly a million degrees)-a sharp departure from ordinary interstellar material.

The Local Bubble was discovered gradually in the 1970s and 1980s. Optical and radio astronomers looked carefully for interstellar gas in our part of the galaxy, but couldn't find much in Earth's neighborhood.

Meanwhile, x-ray astronomers were getting their first look at the sky using sounding rockets and orbiting satellites, which revealed a million-degree x-ray glow coming from all directions. It all added up to Earth being inside a bubble of hot gas blown by exploding stars.

However, not all researchers agreed.

"Within the last decade, some scientists have been challenging the [supernova] interpretation, suggesting that much or all of the soft X-ray diffuse background is instead a result of charge exchange," says F. Scott Porter of the Goddard Space Flight Center.

"Charge exchange": Basically, it happens when the electrically-charged solar wind comes into contact with a neutral gas. The solar wind can steal electrons from the neutral gas, resulting in an X-ray glow that looks a lot like the glow from an old supernova. Charge exchange has been observed many times in comets.

So, is the X-ray glow that fills the sky a sign of peaceful "charge exchange" in the solar system or evidence of terrifying explosions in the distant past?

To find out, an international team researchers including Porter and led by physics professor Massimiliano Galeazzi at the University of Miami in Coral Gables, developed an X-ray detector that could distinguish between the two possibilities. The device was named DXL, for Diffuse X-ray emission from the Local Galaxy.

On Dec. 12, 2012, DXL launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico atop a NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket, reaching a peak altitude of 160 miles and spending five minutes above Earth's atmosphere. That was all the time they needed to measure the amount of "charge exchange" X-rays inside the solar system.

The results, published online in the journal Nature on July 27, indicate that only about 40 percent of the soft X-ray background originates within the solar system. The rest must come from a Local Bubble of hot gas, the relic of ancient supernovas outside the solar system.

Obviously, those supernovas were not close enough to exterminate life on Earth-but they were close enough to wrap our solar system in a bubble of hot gas that persists millions of years later.

"This is a significant discovery,' said Galeazzi. "[It] affects our understanding of the area of the galaxy close to the sun, and can, therefore, be used as a foundation for future models of the galaxy structure."

Galeazzi and collaborators are already planning the next flight of DXL, which will include additional instruments to better characterize the emission. The launch is currently planned for December 2015.

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Related Links
Goddard Space Flight Center
Stellar Chemistry, The Universe And All Within It






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STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Eta Carinae: Our Neighboring Superstars
Washington DC (SPX) Aug 28, 2014
The Eta Carinae star system does not lack for superlatives. Not only does it contain one of the biggest and brightest stars in our galaxy, weighing at least 90 times the mass of the sun, it is also extremely volatile and is expected to have at least one supernova explosion in the future. As one of the first objects observed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory after its launch some 15 years ... read more


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