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Iranians put pressure on Iraq again
by Staff Writers
Baghdad (UPI) Jun 10, 2010

Iran-Russia: odd couple at risk of break-up
Moscow (AFP) June 9, 2010 - After a surprisingly intimate partnership over two decades, the friendship between Russia and Iran risks a major rupture amid a crisis in relations over the nuclear standoff, analysts said. Russia's support of a new round of UN sanctions against Tehran, adopted on Wednesday, and refusal to deliver air defence missiles to Iran has left the Iranian leadership fuming over what they see as betrayal by a trusted ally. Iran now is cultivating a close alliance with an increasingly confident Islamist-rooted government in Turkey, which some see aimed at replacing its alliance with Russia. "Never in modern history has there been such an aggravation in relations between Russia and Iran," said Rajab Safarov, director of the Centre for Contemporary Iranian Studies in Moscow.

Iran has been particularly offended by Russia's refusal to give wholehearted backing to a nuclear fuel exchange deal between Iran, Brazil and Turkey aimed at defusing the nuclear standoff. "Russia's influence on Iran is already waning, the cards that Russia had are no longer there and have gone over to Turkey," said Safarov. In the early years of the Islamic republic in the 1980s after the toppling of the shah, chants of "Death to the USSR" were as much as mantra among the Tehran revolutionary faithful as "Death to America". The USSR actively backed Saddam Hussein's Iraq in the latter part of the 1980-1988 war with Iran, while the clerical regime in Tehran angered Moscow by cracking down on the Soviet-backed Iranian Communist Party Tudeh.

But with the end of the Iran-Iraq war and collapse of the Soviet Union, relations between Tehran and Moscow warmed rapidly, based on common energy interests and a shared distrust of the West. As the international standoff over the Iranian nuclear crisis intensified in the last half decade, Tehran could count on Moscow to soften sanctions measures and rubbish Western suggestions it was seeking the atomic bomb. But Russian frustration with Tehran grew rapidly this year after Iran rejected a nuclear fuel exchange deal involving Russia and instead opted for the Brazil-Turkey accord.

Tensions spiralled last month when President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad warned Moscow risked becoming one of the Islamic Republic's historic enemies and a top Kremlin official spat back that "political demagoguery" never worked. Suspicion of Russia has strong roots in Iran, where the Russo-Persian wars of the 19th century -- which saw imperial Russia grab large tracts of Persian territory -- have not been forgotten. "There is certainly growing frustration from Russia," said one Western diplomat, who asked not to be named. "The Russians prefer a predictable partner." Yevgeny Volk, deputy director of the Yeltsin Foundation, said Russia had decided to adopt a line more similar to the United States as part its goal of improving ties under President Barack Obama. "Russia decided that it would be counter-productive to contradict, as before, the Western position on Iran and that this would damage the image of Russia" he said.

Iranian troops are reported to have crossed into Iraqi Kurdistan and built a fortified base, one of several recent military incursions as Iraq struggles to form a government amid efforts by Tehran to ensure that a pro-Iranian Shiite alliance takes power.

Another area of contention is the disputed oil-rich Maysan border region in southeastern Iraq.

The Iraqi government last month signed a 20-year production contract with a Chinese-Turkish consortium to develop a cluster of three oil fields there that contains the equivalent of 2.6 billion barrels of oil and which both states claim as their own.

A unit of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps occupied an oil well in the Fakka field for two weeks in December, widely seen as a show of force along the poorly defined border.

It's even less defined further north in Kurdistan. Iraq's Kurdish minority has a semi-autonomous enclave there where Iranian Kurdish separatists of the Party for Free Life in Kurdistan, or PEJAK, have bases.

Iraqi officials said 35-40 Iranian troops crossed the border pursuing PEJAK rebels June 2 and set up a base around the mountain village of Perdunaz, 1 mile inside Iraq.

Iranian artillery had been shelling PEJAK positions for several days before the incursion and further incursions are likely to remind Baghdad who's boss.

Similar operations have been conducted by the Iranians in the region in the past but they have rarely, if ever, established a base inside Iraqi territory.

This apparent escalation, however modest, in the wake of the Maysan incursion -- and several others that resulted in exchanges of gunfire -- has raised the stakes along the 800-mile border and underlined the risk of further conflict.

The Shiite regime in Tehran has been making a concerted effort to promote an alliance of Iraqi Shiites, many of them supported by Iran, to form the next government following inconclusive parliamentary elections in March.

With U.S. forces withdrawing from Iraq, a pullout scheduled for completion in late 2011, the Iranians want to ensure that postwar Iraq will be subservient, if not directly controlled by Tehran so pressure can be expected to increase.

The Iranians aren't wild about Iraq's plans to quadruple its oil production over the next several years to 10 million-12 million barrels per day from the current 2.4 million bpd.

This ambitious program -- many in the industry say it's too ambitious -- is heavily dependent on the 11 foreign consortiums Baghdad has brought in to develop its long-battered oil industry over the last year.

The latest deal, to develop the Maysan complex, was with Chinese oil giant CNOOC and Turkey's TPAO.

Iraq has known oil reserves of around 115 billion barrels, the fourth largest after Saudi Arabia, Canada and Iran. But untapped reserves are believed to total as much again, which would put Iraq in the No. 1 spot, eclipsing even Saudi Arabia.

Two-thirds of Iraq's current reserves are in the south, which is dominated by the majority Shiites.

Iran covets those fields and the Fakka incursion in December underlines its determination to prevent Iraq stealing what Iranians consider their oil.

According to Hadi Nejad Hosseinian, a former Iranian deputy oil minister, Tehran has claimed ownership of 20 oil and gas fields along the border.

No hard estimate of the reserves of these fields is available, he said, "but the majority of them are among Iran's biggest fields."

There's a history of oil-grabbing in the region. In September 1980, Saddam Hussein invaded Iran across the southern border into Khuzestan province, center of Iran's oil industry.

A decade later, after ending the 1980-88 war pretty much where he started, Saddam invaded Kuwait to seize its oil fields and was soundly defeated by a U.S.-led coalition.

Iran doesn't want the new, post-Saddam Iraq to threaten its energy industry. Quadrupling Iraqi production could push prices down, which Iran cannot afford.

It oil and gas fields need upgrading and developing as much as Iraq's. International sanctions over the last 30 years have taken their toll, as they did to Iraq's energy industry through lack of access to high-tech equipment or investment.

That may be about to get worse as the United Nations imposes a fourth round of sanctions because of Iran's nuclear program. That's likely to make Iraq's energy riches look mighty tempting.

earlier related report
Hezbollah slams Iran sanctions, regrets Lebanon abstention
Beirut (AFP) June 10, 2010 - Hezbollah has denounced the new UN sanctions imposed on its ally Iran and expressed regret that the Lebanese government abstained from voting at the Security Council.

"We had hoped that Lebanon's position would reflect the capacity of the Lebanese to reach an agreement," the Shiite movement said in a statement released after the UN Security Council vote on Wednesday.

According to Information Minister Tareq Mitri, cabinet members before the vote were equally divided between those who refused to back the UN call for sanctions and those who chose to abstain.

"The council of ministers asked Lebanon's representative at the United Nations to inform the Security Council that the Lebanese government was unable to reach an agreement," he said said.

"The abstentions were equal in number to the votes rejecting the resolution," he added.

The 15-member Security Council adopted a resolution imposing a fourth set of sanctions on Iran by 12 votes to two, with Brazil and Turkey voting against.

The vote was delayed for more than an hour as the ambassadors of Brazil, Turkey and Lebanon awaited instructions from their governments, before deciding to attend.

Hezbollah, whose two ministers voted to reject the sanctions, described the UN resolution as "unjust and contrary to the rules of impartiality."

It also warned that the move "will further complicate the situation in our region."

earlier related report
UN sanctions on Iran show 'double standard': Hamas
Damascus (AFP) June 10, 2010 - Hamas "forcefully" denounced on Thursday the new set of sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council on Iran over its nuclear programme, saying they reflect a policy of double standards.

"Hamas forcefully denounces the imposition of unjust international sanctions on Iran," a statement said. "This is an example of a policy of double standards -- punishing Iran for its peaceful nuclear programme and defending Israel, which has an important nuclear arsenal."

Israel is the Middle East's sole if undeclared nuclear arsenal.

"We consider this decision as a Zionist tool aimed at imposing hegemony in the region and depriving Arab and Islamic countries from their right to peaceful nuclear power."

"It is equally an attempt to cover up Zionist crimes... notably the blockade imposed on Gaza," added the Islamist group, which seized power in the enclave in 2007.

On Wednesday, a US-drafted sanctions resolution was adopted by 12 votes to two in the UN Security Council.

The latest in four sets of measures expands an arms embargo and bars Iran from sensitive activities like uranium mining.

It also authorises states to conduct high-sea inspections of vessels believed to be ferrying banned items for Iran and adds 40 entities to a list of people and groups subject to travel restrictions and financial sanctions.

The West and others fear that Iran is using its nuclear energy programme as a cover for developing an atomic bomb. Tehran insists that its activities are for purely peaceful ends.


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