Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. 24/7 Space News .




STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Fireworks in the Early Universe
by Staff Writers
Amsterdam, Holland (SPX) Oct 02, 2012


Artist impression (ESA/NASA/RUG/MarcelZinger).

Galaxies in the early universe grew fast by rapidly making new stars. Such prodigious star formation episodes, characterized by the intense radiation of the newborn stars, were often accompanied by fireworks in the form of energy bursts caused by the massive central black hole accretion in these galaxies. This discovery by a group of astronomers led by Peter Barthel of the Kapteyn Institute of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands was published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Our Milky Way galaxy forms stars at a slow, steady pace: on average one new star a year is born. Since the Milky Way contains about a hundred billion stars, the actual changes are very slight. The Milky Way is an extremely quiet galaxy; its central black hole is inactive, with only weak energy outbursts due to the occasional capture of a passing star or gas cloud.

This is in marked contrast to the 'active' galaxies of which there are various types and which were abundant in the early universe. Quasars and radio galaxies are prime examples: owing to their bright, exotic radiation, these objects can be observed as far as the edge of the observable universe.

The light of the normal stars in their galaxies is extremely faint at such distances, but active galaxies can be easily detected through their luminous radio, ultraviolet or X-ray radiation, which results from steady accretion onto their massive central black holes.

Until recently these distant active galaxies were only interesting in their own right as peculiar exotic objects. Little was known about the composition of their galaxies, or their relationship to the normal galaxy population.

However, in 2009 ESA's Herschel space telescope was launched. Herschel is considerably larger than NASA's Hubble, and operates at far-infrared wavelengths.

This enables Herschel to detect heat radiation generated by the processes involved in the formation of stars and planets at a small scale, and of complete galaxies at a large scale.

Peter Barthel has been involved with Herschel since 1997 and heads an observational program targeting distant quasars and radio galaxies. His team used the Herschel cameras to observe seventy of these objects. Initial inspection of the observations has revealed that many emit bright far-infrared radiation.

The Astrophysical Journal Letter 'Extreme host galaxy growth in powerful early-epoch radio galaxies', by Peter Barthel and co-authors Martin Haas (Bochum University, GER), Christian Leipski (Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, GER) and Belinda Wilkes (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), describes their project and the detailed analysis of the first three distant radio galaxies.

The fact that these three objects, as well as many others from the observational sample, emit strong far-infrared radiation indicates that vigorous star formation is taking place in their galaxies, creating hundreds of stars per year during one or more episodes lasting millions of years. The bright radio emission implies strong, simultaneous black hole accretion.

This means that while the black holes in the centers of the galaxies are growing (as a consequence of the accretion), the host galaxies are also growing rapidly.

The Herschel observations thereby provide an explanation for the observation that more massive galaxies have more massive black holes. Astronomers have observed this scaling relationship since the 1990s: the fireworks in the early universe could well be responsible for this relationship.

Says Barthel, "It is becoming clear that active galaxies are not only among the largest, most distant, most powerful and most spectacular objects in the universe, but also among the most important objects; many if not all massive normal galaxies must also have gone through similar phases of simultaneous black hole-driven activity and star formation."

The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 757, Number 2; "Extreme Host Galaxy Growth in Powerful Early-epoch Radio Galaxies"; Peter Barthel, Martin Haas, Christian Leipski, and Belinda Wilkes.

.


Related Links
RUH
Stellar Chemistry, The Universe And All Within It






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Stellar Shockwaves Shaped Our Solar System
Madrid, Spain (SPX) Sep 27, 2012
The early years of our solar system were a turbulent time, and questions remain about its development. Dr. Tagir Abdylmyanov, Associate Professor from Kazan State Power Engineering University, has been researching shockwaves emitted from our very young Sun, and has discovered that these would have caused the planets in our solar system to form at different times. Abdylmyanov will present h ... read more


STELLAR CHEMISTRY
China has no timetable for manned moon landing

Senior scientist discusses China's lunar orbiter challenges

NASA sees 'gateway' for space missions

Protection for Moon, Mars astronauts eyed

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
NASA rover checks in online from Mars

Russia, U.S. to send crew to ISS for year

From 'Bathurst Inlet' to 'Rocknest'

Gale Crater Set for Summer Heat Wave?

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Virgin Galactic Acquires Full Ownership of The Spaceship Company

Wind delays Austrian's edge of space jump in US

Brazil's vibrant high-tech industry urged to go global

Uwingu's Crowdfunding Campaign Concludes

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
China Spacesat gets 18-million-USD gov't support

Tiangong Orbit Change Signals Likely Date for Shenzhou 10

China Focus: Timeline for China's space research revealed

China eyes next lunar landing as US scales back

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Mission accomplished for ATV Edoardo Amaldi

ISS Partners Plan Yearlong Mission to Orbital Station

Space freighter burns up in suicide dive

Space freighter undocking set for Friday

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
SpaceX craft on way to ISS in first supply run

Orbital Begins Antares Rocket Operations at Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport

H-IIB Launch Service Privatization

Ariane rocket launches two telecom satellites

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
The Magnetic Wakes of Pulsar Planets

Stagnant Interiors Suppress Chances of Life on Super-Earths

Meteors Might Add Methane to Exoplanet Atmospheres

Two 'hot Jupiters' found in star cluster: NASA

STELLAR CHEMISTRY
Google, publishers end long-running copyright case

Apple even stronger a year after Steve Jobs death

Prehistoric builders reveal trade secrets

Space debris delays Japan's satellite experiment




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement