Subscribe free to our newsletters via your
. 24/7 Space News .




TECH SPACE
Crush those clinkers while they're hot
by Staff Writers
Houston TX (SPX) Jan 19, 2015


A cutaway illustration of a clinker, a pellet manufactured in a kiln and then ground to make cement, shows a defect called a screw dislocation. Rice University scientists studied the effect of such defects on the quality of cement used in concrete and how much energy could be saved by modifying the manufacturing process. Image courtesy Shahsavari Group/Rice University.

Making cement is a centuries-old art that has yet to be perfected, according to researchers at Rice University who believe it can be still more efficient.

Former Rice graduate student Lu Chen and materials scientist Rouzbeh Shahsavari calculated that fine-tuning the process by which round lumps of calcium silicate called clinkers are turned into cement can save a lot of energy. Their new findings are detailed in the American Chemical Society journal Applied Materials and Interfaces.

Manufacturers of Portland cement, the most common type in use around the world, make clinkers by heating raw elements in a rotary kiln and grinding them into the fine powder that becomes cement.

Mixed with water, cement becomes the glue that holds concrete together. An earlier study by Shahsavari and his colleagues that viewed the molecular structure of cement noted that worldwide, concrete manufacturing is responsible for 5 to 10 percent of the carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, released into the atmosphere.

The researchers analyzed the crystal and atomic structures of five phases of clinkers representing stages of cooling after they leave the kiln. They focused on the internal stresses that make some more brittle (and easier to grind) than others. They also looked at the unavoidable defects called screw dislocations, shear offsets in the raw materials that, even when ground, influence how well the powders mix with water. That reactivity determines the cement's ultimate strength.

They found that clinkers were not only most brittle when hottest, but also the most reactive. In ranking the five samples' qualities, they suggested their research could lead manufacturers to consolidate processes and cut grinding energy that now absorbs around 10-12 percent of the energy required to make cement.

Equally important, for each ton of produced cement, the grinding energy accounts for roughly 50 kilograms of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, they determined.

"Defects form naturally, and you cannot do anything about them," Shahsavari said. "But the more brittle the clinkers are, the better they are for grinding. We found that the initial phase out of the kiln is the most brittle and that defects carry through to the powder. These are places where water molecules want to react."


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

.


Related Links
Rice University
Space Technology News - Applications and Research






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





TECH SPACE
Integrating with multiferroic materials and devices silicon chips
Raleigh NC (SPX) Jan 19, 2015
A research team led by North Carolina State University has made two advances in multiferroic materials, including the ability to integrate them on a silicon chip, which will allow the development of new electronic memory devices. The researchers have already created prototypes of the devices and are in the process of testing them. Multiferroic materials have both ferroelectric and ferromag ... read more


TECH SPACE
Service Module of Chinese Probe Enters Lunar Orbit

Service module of China's lunar orbiter enters 127-minute orbit

Chinese spacecraft to return to moon's orbit

Russian Company Proposes to Build Lunar Base

TECH SPACE
Team Working on Strategy to Fix Flash Memory Issue

Crystal-Rich Rock 'Mojave' is Next Mars Drill Target

Russia-EU Mars Research Program to Be Completed

Mars is warmer than some parts of the U.S. and Canada

TECH SPACE
U.S. food headed for ISS stalled in Russian customs

Long duration weightlessness in space induces a blood shift

Experts explore the medical safety needs of civilian space travel

NASA, Nissan to Create Interplanetary Driverless Vehicles

TECH SPACE
China launches the FY-2 08 meteorological satellite successfully

China's Long March puts satellite in orbit on 200th launch

Countdown to China's new space programs begins

China develops new rocket for manned moon mission: media

TECH SPACE
Astronauts take shelter after alarm at space station

Russia delays decision on using ISS after 2020

Space station worms help battle muscle and bone loss

Fresh supplies and experiments for Samantha

TECH SPACE
Soyuz Installed at Baikonur, Expected to Launch Wednesday

SpaceX CEO Elon Musk wants to shake up satellite industry

Firefly Space Systems and NASA have Inked Space Act Agreement

Vega ready to launch ESA spaceplane

TECH SPACE
A twist on planetary origins

NameExoWorlds contest opens

Ground-breaking research to discover new planets

NASA releases retro-styled travel posters for newly discovered planets

TECH SPACE
Laser-generated surface structures create extremely water-repellent metals

New laser-patterning technique turns metals into supermaterials

Integrating with multiferroic materials and devices silicon chips

Crush those clinkers while they're hot




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.