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Silicon Microchain Demonstrates Power Of MEMs

a silicon microchain etched by engineers at Sandia National Labs shows how engaging drive gears can be simulated in a micro- machined substrate of silicon using Sandia’s patented Summit IV and Summit V technology, which enables construction of complicated MEMS devices.
Albuquerque - Jan 17, 2002
A microchain that closely resembles a bicycle chain — except that each link could rest comfortably atop a human hair — has been fabricated at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories.

(The distance between chain link centers is 50 microns. The diameter of a human hair is approximately 70 microns.)

Because a single microchain could rotate many drive shafts, the device would make it unnecessary to place multiple tiny microelectromechanical (MEMS) motors in close proximity. Usually, a separate driver powers each MEMS device.

"All those drives take up a lot of real estate on chips," says Sandia technician Ed Vernon, who has received a patent for the silicon microchain.

The microchain also makes it possible to drive a MEMS device from a motor situated at a distance, again saving considerable space on the MEMS-bearing chip.

The microchain, says Ed, could be used to power microcamera shutters, as larger chains currently do in the macroworld. It could also be used in mechanical timing and decoding.

The 50-link silicon microchain is designed to transmit power somewhat like the drive belt in a 19th-century sewing factory. There, a central engine shaft powered by steam turned drive belts to power distant work stations — for example, sewing machines — before the dawn of the age of electricity.


Detail of silicon link and pivot on microchain drive.
Chain systems, unlike stroke systems, do not require back-and-forth movements but instead allow for both continuous and intermittent drive translation.

Vernon fabricated a microchain rather than a microbelt because although silicon belts are tough and flexible, they are spring-like and produce too much torque on gears not aligned in a straight line.

Each chain link, on the other hand, is capable of plus-or-minus 52 degrees rotation with respect to the preceding link, without creating pressure on the support structure. The wide angle means MEMS designers can be relatively unconstrained in positioning multiple devices.

The longest span unsupported by gears or bracing is 500 microns. A microchain tensioner is needed to accommodate longer spans.

The multilevel surface-micromachined silicon device was constructed with the aid of Sandia's patented Summit IV and Summit V technology, which enables construction of complicated MEMS devices.

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Voyage of the Nano-Surgeons
Huntsville - Jan 15, 2002
It's like a scene from the movie "Fantastic Voyage." A tiny vessel -- far smaller than a human cell -- tumbles through a patient's bloodstream, hunting down diseased cells and penetrating their membranes to deliver precise doses of medicines.



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Mironov told the radio station that the conditions of Pasko's detention were "unsound."

He said he had remained in touch with Pasko's lawyers, the ITAR-TASS news agency quoted him as saying.

Even if Federation Council lawyers decided that he is not entitled to act as Pasko's guarantor, he would write a letter of support for the journalist, Mironov said, describing the recent verdict as "unfair."

Only one of the 10 charges against Pasko was upheld, that of illegally attending a meeting of the Pacific Fleet's general staff and receiving information classified as secret, with allegedly the intention of passing it on to Japanese media.

Pasko was tried and acquitted on espionage charges in an earlier trial that ended in 1999, but found guilty of abuse of office for handing information about the alleged nuclear dumping to the Japanese media.

Both he and the prosecution appealed the decision, and the case was reopened last year.

He has already served nearly two years in jail while awaiting trial.

Earlier Thursday around 50 Pasko supporters picketed the headquarters of the security services, the FSB (former KGB), in Russia's far eastern city of Vladivostok where the reporter is being detained.

Police intervened and charged five protestors with disturbing the peace.

All rights reserved. © 2002 Agence France-Presse. Sections of the information displayed on this page (dispatches, photographs, logos) are protected by intellectual property rights owned by Agence France-Presse. As a consequence, you may not copy, reproduce, modify, transmit, publish, display or in any way commercially exploit any of the content of this section without the prior written consent of Agence France-Presse.

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CIVIL NUCLEAR
Nevada's Yucca Mountain To Be Nuclear Garbage Can
Washington - Jan 11, 2002
US Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham has designated Nevada's remote Yucca Mountain as the federal repository for, eventually, more than 77,000 tonnes of nuclear waste.



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The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2016 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.


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MARAN" To: simon@spacer.com Message-Id: <000615164800.3280025d@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov> Subject: NRAO: Scientists Discover Sugar in Space X-Spam-Rating: 209.85.120.230 1.6.2 0/1000/N X-DPOP: DPOP Version 2.8b X-UIDL: 961104435.19460 Status: U THE FOLLOWING RELEASE WAS RECEIVED FROM THE NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY, IN SOCORRO, NEW MEXICO, AND IS FORWARDED FOR YOUR INFORMATION. (FORWARDING DOES NOT IMPLY ENDORSEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.) Steve Maran, American Astronomical Society http://www.nrao.edu FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2000 Contacts: Dave Finley, NRAO PIO (505) 835-7302 dfinley@nrao.edu Bill Steigerwald, NASA Goddard PIO (301) 286-5017 wsteiger@pop100.gsfc.nasa.gov NOTE: For graphics accompanying this release, see the Web version at: http://www.nrao.edu/pr/sugar.html Scientists Discover Sugar in Space The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope used to detect the sugar molecule has been a pioneer instrument in the detection of molecules in space. Built in 1967, it made the first detections of dozens of the molecules now known to exist in space, including the important first discovery of carbon monoxide, now widely used by astronomers as a signpost showing regions where stars are being formed. The 12 Meter Telescope is scheduled to be closed at the end of July, in preparation for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, an advanced system of 64 radio-telescope antennas in northern Chile now being developed by an international partnership. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. ### For More Information: Dr. Jan M. Hollis NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Phone: 301-286-7591 e-mail: Jan.M.Hollis@gsfc.nasa.gov Dr. Frank J. Lovas Astronomy Department University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois Phone: 217-333-3090 e-mail: lovas@nist.gov Dr. Philip R. Jewell National Radio Astronomy Observatory Green Bank, West Virginia Phone: 304-456-2301 e-mail: pjewell@nrao.edu ### ----------------------------------------------------------------- IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO CONTINUE RECEIVING PRESS RELEASES THAT ARE FORWARDED TO THE NEWS MEDIA VIA THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, PLEASE REPLY ACCORDINGLY TO ANY INCOMING PRESS RELEASE, OR WRITE TO hrsmaran@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov. From ???@??? Fri Jun 16 07:51:18 2000 Return-Path: Delivered-To: spacer-com-simon@spacer.com Received: (qmail 521 invoked from network); 15 Jun 2000 21:37:19 -0000 Received: from madhu.gsfc.nasa.gov (128.183.172.192) by 209.85.120.230 with SMTP; 15 Jun 2000 21:37:19 -0000 Received: by eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov for simon@spacer.com; Thu, 15 Jun 2000 17:35:23 -0400 Date: Thu, 15 Jun 2000 17:35:23 -0400 From: "STEPHEN P. MARAN" To: simon@spacer.com Message-Id: <000615173523.32800262@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov> Subject: UNIVERSE 2000 MEETING, JULY 13-19 IN PASADENA, CALIFORNIA X-Spam-Rating: 209.85.120.230 1.6.2 0/1000/N X-DPOP: DPOP Version 2.8b X-UIDL: 961106062.19478 Status: U THE FOLLOWING RELEASE WAS RECEIVED FROM THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC, IN SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, AND IS FORWARDED FOR YOUR INFORMATION. (FORWARDING DOES NOT IMPLY ENDORSEMENT BY THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY.) Steve Maran, American Astronomical Society www.aspsky.org Media contact: John G. Watson (650) 604-1857 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2000 "UNIVERSE 2000" MEETS JULY 13-19 ANNUAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF THE PACIFIC MEETING TO TAKE PLACE IN PASADENA, CALIFORNIA [Editors please note: Journalists are invited to attend all ASP meeting events.] San Francisco, Calif.-"Universe 2000," the 112th annual meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), takes place in Pasadena, CA, July 13-19, For over one hundred years, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the largest general astronomy society in the world, has worked to explain the mysteries of the universe to students, teachers, hobbyists and the general public. Its annual meetings bring together professional and amateur astronomers, astronomy historians and educators, science students and the general public. The weekend of Saturday and Sunday, July 15-16, is devoted to programs for the general public and amateur astronomers. The "Universe 2000 EXPO" includes panel discussions, talks by leading astronomers, hands-on activities for children, book signings, a raffle for a telescope, a silent auction and an exhibit hall. Lecture topics include "Einstein's Greatest Blunder," "The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence" and "Searching for Extrasolar Planets." Befitting the society's emphasis on science education, "Universe 2000" begins with "Universe in the Classroom: A Workshop on Teaching Astronomy in Grades 3-12," meeting on Thursday and Friday, July 13-14. Designed for teachers, librarians, curriculum specialists and youth group leaders, it is intended for teachers at all levels of expertise. Topics include black holes, constellations and how to make comets in the classroom. College professors can benefit from "Cosmos in the Classroom: Teaching Astronomy to College Non-science Majors," taking place Monday through Wednesday, July 17-19. This symposium, designed for those who teach introductory college astronomy, focuses on ways to improve teaching and to put astronomy in a wider context. A key activity is a three-day astrobiology research symposium, "From Dust to Life: Surviving the First Billion years of the Solar System." Meeting Monday through Wednesday, July 17-19, this science sub-conference features experts addressing the physical and chemical conditions that scientists consider important for the onset of life out of the interstellar environment. All programs take place at the Pasadena Convention Center, 300 East Green Street, Pasadena, CA, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m., with the exception of optional evening events, including an awards dinner featuring television personality Bill Nye and tours of Griffith Observatory and Mount Wilson Observatory. Meeting sponsors include The Teaching Company, Astronomy Magazine, the Griffith Observatory, Meade Instruments Corp., Mount Wilson Observatory, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Planetary Society. For complete details, including fees, visit www.aspsky.org/meetings.html, call (415) 337-1100, FAX (415) 337-5205 or e-mail meeting@aspsky.org. CALENDAR ANNOUNCEMENT: "Universe 2000," the 112th annual meeting of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), takes place Thursday, July 13, through Wednesday, July 19, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m., at the Pasadena Convention Center, 300 East Green St., Pasadena, CA. A key activity is a weekend expo for the general public featuring panel discussions and talks by leading astronomers. Events also include a three-day research symposium focusing on the development and survival of life in the early Solar System, a two-day workshop for grade 3-12 teachers, and such optional events as an awards dinner featuring Bill Nye and observatory tours. For complete details, including fees, visit www.aspsky.org/meetings.html or call (415) 337-1100. # # # # # IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO CONTINUE RECEIVING PRESS RELEASES THAT ARE FORWARDED TO THE NEWS MEDIA VIA THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, PLEASE REPLY ACCORDINGLY TO ANY INCOMING PRESS RELEASE, OR WRITE TO hrsmaran@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov. From ???@??? Fri Jun 16 07:51:18 2000 Return-Path: Delivered-To: spacer-com-simon@spacer.com Received: (qmail 6361 invoked from network); 15 Jun 2000 21:46:05 -0000 Received: from achamp.gsfc.nasa.gov (128.183.172.208) by 209.85.120.230 with SMTP; 15 Jun 2000 21:46:05 -0000 Received: by eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov for simon@spacer.com; Thu, 15 Jun 2000 17:44:05 -0400 Date: Thu, 15 Jun 2000 17:44:05 -0400 From: "STEPHEN P. MARAN" To: simon@spacer.com Message-Id: <000615174405.32800264@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov> Subject: SOLAR STORMS NEWS BRIEFINGS AVAILABLE BY PHONE & WWW X-Spam-Rating: 209.85.120.230 1.6.2 0/1000/N X-DPOP: DPOP Version 2.8b X-UIDL: 961106062.19479 Status: U THE FOLLOWING ADVISORY WAS RECEIVED FROM THE SOLAR PHYSICS DIVISION OF THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY AND IS FORWARDED FOR YOUR INFORMATION. (FORWARDING DOES NOT IMPLY ENDORSEMENT BY THE PARENT SOCIETY.) Steve Maran, American Astronomical Society Contact: Dr. Craig DeForest Voice: 303-546-6020; FAX 303-546-6987 deforest@boulder.swri.edu MEDIA ADVISORY June 15, 2000 THIRD ADVISORY: SOLAR PHYSICS MEETING AT LAKE TAHOE, NEVADA JUNE 18-22, 2000 CME ARRIVAL PREDICTION AND SOLAR FLARE BRIEFINGS AVAILABLE BY CONFERENCE CALL AND WWW; COORDINATED VIDEO FEED VIA NASA TV The two media briefings scheduled for next week during the AAS/SPD meeting will be available to interested press via a combination of audio (conference call) and visual aids (viewgraphs and video posted on the WWW). To participate in any of the following activities, please send email to Dr. Craig DeForest, AAS/SPD Press Officer. I will then send you further instructions and contact information. Details: The 2 scheduled press briefings are: Monday, 19-Jun-2000, 9:00 AM PDT - Precise prediction method for arrival of Earth-directed solar coronal mass ejections Tuesday, 20-Jun-2000, 9:00 AM PDT - Discovery of the magnetic power source for solar flares Audio: Audio will be available through a conference call arranged by the convention hall staff. You will provide a telephone number for the conference operator to dial a few minutes before the conference. Space is limited, so I must know ASAP which days you would like to listen to the briefings. Visual: Graphics and movie clips used in the briefings will be posted to a site on the WWW. If you reserve a space in the conference call, I will tell you the WWW address to point at in order to retrieve this material. The material will not be available until the beginning of each briefing. Video: Both conferences will be accompanied by videofile from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, including interviews with the principal scientists. The videofiles will be uplinked via NASA television at 9am, noon, 3pm,, 6pm, and 9pm PDT. NASA Television is available on the GE-2 satellite, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. Please send e-mail on or before Saturday, June 17 to deforest@boulder.swri.edu or phone me at 303-546-6020 (W) to make your reservations. Remember to indicate which days you would like to participate, and the phone number to dial. I leave for California on Sunday morning, and will be more difficult to reach after that time. The number for Caesar's Tahoe is 800-648-3353; to reach the press room, ask for the "Solar Physics meeting press room", which is the hotel's "Titus room". ---------------------------------------------------------------- IF YOU DO NOT WISH TO CONTINUE RECEIVING PRESS RELEASES THAT ARE FORWARDED TO THE NEWS MEDIA VIA THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, PLEASE REPLY ACCORDINGLY TO ANY INCOMING PRESS RELEASE, OR WRITE TO hrsmaran@eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov. From ???@??? Sat Jun 17 07:05:21 2000 Return-Path: Delivered-To: spacer-com-simon@spacer.com Received: (qmail 9848 invoked from network); 16 Jun 2000 16:18:10 -0000 Received: from stars.gsfc.nasa.gov (128.183.172.28) by 209.85.120.230 with SMTP; 16 Jun 2000 16:18:10 -0000 Received: by eclair.gsfc.nasa.gov for simon@spacer.com; Fri, 16 Jun 2000 12:16:10 -0400 Date: Fri, 16 Jun 2000 12:16:10 -0400 From: "STEPHE