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JOVIAN DREAMS
Extreme Volcanism On Io
by Staff Writers
Hilo HI (SPX) Aug 06, 2014


Image of Io taken in the near-infrared with adaptive optics at the Gemini North telescope on August 29. In addition to the extremely bright eruption on the upper right limb of the satellite, the lava lake Loki is visible in the middle of Io's disk, as well as the fading eruption that was detected earlier in the month by de Pater on the southern (bottom) limb. Io is about one arcsecond across. Image courtesy Katherine de Kleer/UC Berkeley/Gemini Observatory/AURA.

During the middle of 2013, Jupiter's moon Io came alive with volcanism. Now, an image from the Gemini Observatory captures what is one of the brightest volcanoes ever seen in our solar system. The image, obtained on August 29, reveals the magnitude of the eruption that was the "grand finale" in a series of eruptions on the distant moon.

Io's volcanism is caused by the tidal push-and-pull of massive Jupiter, which heats the satellite's interior - making it our Solar System's most volcanically active known body.

According to University of California Berkeley (UCB) astronomer Katherine de Kleer, the Gemini observations, "... represent the best day-by-day coverage of such an eruption - thanks to Gemini's rapid and flexible scheduling capabilities."

De Kleer, who led one of a pair of two papers published in the journal Icarus, adds that the Gemini data allowed the team to monitor the evolution of the extreme volcanic activity over nearly the first two weeks of the eruption - which provided a critical new perspective on the outburst events.

De Kleer's paper examines the powerful late-August eruption in detail, concluding that the energy emitted was about 20 Terawatts and expelled many cubic kilometers of lava. "At the time we observed the event, an area of newly-exposed lava on the order of tens of square kilometers was visible" says de Kleer.

"We believe that it erupted in fountains from long fissures on Io's surface, which were over ten-thousand-times more powerful than the lava fountains during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland, for example."

The original detection of the volcano was made simultaneously at Gemini and NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), and was the first of a series of observations monitoring Io at both facilities over the following year.

These particular observations were timed to follow up on a different outburst eruption that was detected earlier in the month by Imke de Pater, also of UCB.

This record of the spate of activity began when de Pater first spotted a hotspot using the W.M. Keck Observatory in mid-August (see UCB press release, also released at: (http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2014/08/04/a-hellacious-two-weeks-on-jupiters-moon-io/), which the team followed with further observations from Mauna Kea.

The late August Gemini observations of the most extreme outburst used adaptive optics on the Gemini North telescope to produce this super-sharp near-infrared image. Gemini also recorded a series of images chronicling the massive eruption's evolution as it faded over the next 12 days.

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Related Links
Gemini Observatory
Jupiter and its Moons
Explore The Ring World of Saturn and her moons
The million outer planets of a star called Sol
News Flash at Mercury






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JOVIAN DREAMS
Jupiter's moon Io may feature more volcanoes than previously thought
Pasadena, Calif. (UPI) Aug 5, 2014
Jupiter's moon Io featured three massive volcanic eruptions within a two-week span last summer, leading astronomers to believe the "pizza moon" - named so for its cratered, pepperoni-like surface - may spew molten rock more often that scientists previously believed. "We typically expect one huge outburst every one or two years, and they're usually not this bright," explained Imke de P ... read more


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